Vitamin B3 could prevent miscarriages and birth defects

OTCINACTION

An extra dose of vitamin B3 might help prevent certain kinds of complex birth defects, according to a new study. It is thought the vitamin can help compensate for defects in the body’s ability to make a molecule, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which researchers have now linked for the first time to healthy fetal development in humans.

Every year 7.9 million babies are born with a birth defect worldwide. The discovery suggests the possibility that boosting levels of B3 in pregnant women’s diets might help lower overall rates of birth defects.

Researchers from the Victor Chang Institute in Sydney called it ‘a double breakthrough’ as they found both a cause and a preventative solution. The researchers analysed the DNA of four families where the mothers had suffered multiple miscarriages or their babies were born with multiple birth defects, such as heart, kidney, vertebrae and cleft palate problems.

They found mutations in two genes that caused the child to be deficient in a vital molecule known as Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which allows cells to generate energy and organs to develop normally. Lead researcher Prof Sally Dunwoodie replicated these mutations in mice and found they could be corrected if the pregnant mother took niacin (vitamin B3).

“You can boost your levels of NAD and completely prevent the miscarriages and birth defects. It bypasses the genetic problem,” she said. “It’s rare that you find a cause and a prevention in the same study. And the prevention is so simple, it’s a vitamin,” she said.

vitamin

 

Back In 2005, Dunwoodie’s team dealt with a particularly severe case, a baby who had major defects in the heart, backbone, and ribs; the rib problems being so bad that the child’s lungs couldn’t fully inflate. The team found that the family carried a mutation in a gene related to the production of NAD, a molecule crucial for energy storage and DNA synthesis in cells. Both parents carried a mutation in one of their copies of the gene, and the affected baby had inherited two defective copies.

No one had reported any role for NAD in heart or bone development, Dunwoodie says. “We didn’t know what to do with it.”

To confirm the role of the mutations in organ and bone development, the researchers knocked out the two genes in mice to see whether similar birth defects appeared. At first all the pups were normal. But then the researchers realised that standard mouse chow is rich in niacin and that cells can use either niacin or nicotinamide—both known together as vitamin B3—to make NAD by an alternate pathway.

The work opens a potentially exciting new area of research for developmental biologists: Trying to understand how cell metabolism affects development

 

 

New advice says eat 10 fruit & veg per day

OTCinActionheader

A study by Imperial College London has suggested we should eat 10 portions of fruit & vegetables a day. The study said that such eating habits could prevent 7.8 million premature deaths each year. The study also identified particular fruit & vegetables that reduced the risk of cancer and heart disease.

A portion counts as 80g (3oz) of fruit or vegetables, which is equal to a small banana, a pear, or three heaped tablespoons of spinach or peas. The findings were based on pooled data on 95 separate studies, involving the eating habits of two million people.

Lower risk of cancer was linked to eating green vegetables such as spinach and kale, yellow vegetables and cauliflower. Lower risk of heart disease and strokes was linked to eating apples, pears, citrus fruits and leafy greens.

The results, published in the International Journal of Epidemiology, also assessed the risk of dying before your time. Compared with eating no fruit or veg a day, it showed:

  • 200g cut the risk of cardiovascular disease by 13% while 800g cut the risk by 28%
  • 200g cut the risk of cancer by 4%, while 800g cut the risk by 13%
  • 200g cut the risk of a premature death by 15%, while 800g cut the risk by 31%

Fresh fruit stand with boysenberries, raspberries, cherries and grapes

The researchers do not know if eating even more fruit & vegetables than the newly suggested 10 portions would have even greater health benefits, as there is little evidence out there to review.

Dr Dagfinn Aune, one of the researchers, said: “Fruit & vegetables have been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, blood pressure and to boost the health of our blood vessels and immune system.” He continued: “This may be due to the complex network of nutrients they hold, including many antioxidants, which may reduce DNA damage and lead to a reduction in cancer risk.”

However the study also said that the benefits of this would be hard to integrate as many people struggle to even eat the five a day (400g) which is recommended by the World Health Organization. In the UK, only about one in three people eat this recommended portion, showing the huge potential for VMS marketers in terms of targeting their supplements at people that don’t eat their 10 fruit & veg a day.

Vit D may prevent cold & flu

OTCinActionheader

“The sunshine vitamin”, also known as vitamin D, is vital for healthy bones and a strong immune system, says an analysis published in the British Medical Journal. This study also suggests that foods should be fortified with the vitamin.

Public Health England (PHE), however, argues that the infections data is not conclusive, although it does recommend the supplements to improve bone and muscle health.

According to the research, the immune system uses vitamin D to make antimicrobial weapons that puncture holes in bacteria and viruses. As vitamin D is made in the skin while out in the sun, many people, particularly in the UK, have low levels during colder seasons.

Trials on using supplements to prevent infections have so far given varied results, so researchers pooled data on 11,321 people from 25 separate trials to try to gain a more conclusive result. The team at Queen Mary University of London looked at respiratory tract infections, which covers a wide range of illnesses from a runny nose to flu to pneumonia.

db-200217-vit-d

The study overall said one person would be spared infection for every 33 taking vitamin D supplements. That is more effective than a flu vaccination, which needs to treat 40 to prevent one case, although flu is far more serious than the common cold.

There were more beneficial results for those taking pills daily or weekly, rather than in monthly super-doses and in people who were lacking vitamin D in the first place. The main purpose of vitamin D supplements is to normalise the level of calcium and phosphate in the body, which are crucial for the growth and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth and muscles.

In extreme cases, low levels of vitamin D can cause rickets in children, where the bones become soft and weak and, in some cases, misshapen as they continue to grow. In adults, vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia, which leads to severe bone pain and muscle aches.

One of the researchers taking party in the study, Professor Adrian Martineau, commented: “Assuming a UK population of 65 million, and that 70% have at least one acute respiratory infection each year, then daily or weekly vitamin D supplements will mean 3.25 million fewer people would get at least one acute respiratory infection a year.”

For more vitamin D developments, please follow this link.

Vit D recommended for all

OTCinActionheader

A report by a committee of independent nutrition experts has recommended that everyone in the UK should take vitamin D supplements. This has been advised despite the initial thought that only certain groups of the population should take the supplement.

The new guidance advice, which applies to England and Wales, suggests that everyone over the age of four should take 10mcg of vitamin D everyday. The guidance advice also suggests that during the chillier seasons this is particularly advised.

Vitamin D Pills(1)

The report strongly suggests that pregnant and breastfeeding women, people from ethnic minority groups with dark skin, elderly people in care homes and those who wear clothing that covers a majority of the skin, should take 10mcg of vitamin D everyday all year round.

The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) looked at the issue and decided that, to ensure a majority of the population has enough vitamin D in their blood all year round, daily intake is advisable.

For pregnant women and some children up to and including the age of four, the supplements will be free under the government’s ‘Healthy Start’ scheme. The Department of Health will now have to decide whether to fund free supplements for other groups of the population.

Official estimates suggest one in five adults and one in six children in England may have low levels of the vitamin in their bodies.

OTC NewDirections Welcomes you to 2014

NDNWEditorsHeadersThe latest Newsletter from Co-Editor on OTC.NewDirections, Nicola Watts.

OTC.NewDirections, welcomes you to 2014 with the first bulletin of the year, where we are looking at the latest in clinical trial data transparency. The UK government has said it is “surprised and concerned” that data is routinely withheld from the medical and academic community. Meanwhile, a provisional agreement between the European Parliament and Council of Ministers would require both Pharmaceutical companies and academic researchers to upload all their results to a publicly accessible database. Continue reading

December 2013 Editor’s Comment – OTC.NewDirections

DaveNDheaderAs the festive season fast approaches, several medicine agencies are reminding marketers of deadlines for certain marketing authorisation submissions. The European Medicines Agency has an imminent deadline for Type-IA variations (a change that has only a minimal effect, or no impact at all, on the quality, safety or efficacy of the medicinal product concerned), while medicines agencies in Belgium, Denmark and Latvia have also issued reminders about upcoming deadlines. For more details, see tomorrow’s edition of OTC.NewDirections.
Continue reading